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Rosh Hashana Halachic Digest 5777

Rosh Hashana Halachic Digest 5777

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ראש השנה ה'תשע"ז

Halachic Digest

Compiled by Rabbi Yoseph Vigler & Rabbi Mendel Zirkind

Edited by Rabbi Sholom Zirkind

Original editing by Rabbi Y. Zirkind ע"ה

Comments: Rabbi@MayanYisroel.net

לעילוי נשמת הרב יצחק בן הרב אליעזר צבי זאב צירקינד ז”ל

For a Printable Version Click HERE 

 

The Month of Elul

1) Elul, through Yom Kippur are days of compassion and good will, and the opportune time to do Teshuva. G‑d, the King, is in the field, allowing anyone to approach Him, and be greeted by the King’s smiling face.

2) We account for all our deeds the past year, strengthen our good qualities and improve our deficiencies.

3) It is customary to check Tefillin and Mezuzos in Elul, and to increase in Torah, Tefillah, and Tzedaka.

4) We blow the Shofar every day after שחרית, besides Shabbos and ערב ראש השנה.

5)We increase Tehillim - 3 Kapitlach daily, according to the Baal Shem Tov (completing on Yom Kippur).

7) We wish each other (verbally and in writing a כתיבה וחתימה טובה לשנה טובה ומתוקה.

8) This year, on Shabbos כי תצא, after the הפטורה of רני עקרה, we add the הפטורה of עני’ סוערה, which we did not say yet this year because ראש חודש אלול fell out on Shabbos.

 

Slichos

 

  1. Ashkenazim say Slichos at least 4 days before Rosh Hashanah. One reason is to scrutinize ourselves like a קרבן that needed to be examined 4 days before being offered on the Mizbeach .

  2. When Rosh Hashanah falls out on Monday or Tuesday, we start a full week before, to begin on a Sunday.

  3. Slichos should be recited early in the morning. Some communities say the first Slichos early Sunday morning when still night, since we mention the night e.g. “בזעקם בעוד ליל"and "רצה עתירתם בעמדם בלילות"

Therefore if one started saying Slichos on the first day after sunrise these part are omitted.

  1. In some communities Slichos are said after midnight,

  2. Slichos should preferably not to be said before midnight. Some communities rely on those opinions who say that Slichos can be recited 2 hours before midnight, (i.e. at the beginning of the second third of the night), since this is also an עת רצון. According to some opinions, if Slichos is recited on מוצאי שבת before חצות, one should not say אשמנו.

  3. Some don’t fall for Tachnun during slichos. For those who do , it depends:

  • If Slichos are recited before midnight, we don't fall during tachnun.

  • If Slichos are recited after midnight, but before daybreak, some fall if it's close to daylight, while others wait to do נפילת אפים until daylight.

  1. Waking up to say Slichos after midnight requires saying ברכת התורה beforehand.

  2. The chazan wears a Talis, but if it is not yet עלות השחר he doesn’t make a bracho.

  • If he continues until after it gets light, he should touch his Tzitzis and make the brocho then.

  • Before עלות השחר it's best that he borrows someone else's Talis, to avoid the shaila of a Bracho.  

  1. If there is no Talis, Slichos, including י"ג מדות, are still said.

  2. The first kaddish can only be said if these was a minyan during אשרי. Otherwise, kaddish is skipped.

  3. If there was a Minyan and some left before the final קדיש, it could still be said as long as there remained 6 .

  4. It is proper to stand while saying Slichos. One who is ill should at least try stand for אשמנו, י"ג מדות, שמע קולנו.

  5. It is best to say Slichos with a minyan. If one is unable, according to some they omit saying י"ג מדות. Others hold that it could be said in the tune of reading the Torah. Also, the paragraphs that are in Aramaic,מחי ומסי and מרן דבשמיא, should only be said with a minyan.

Shabbos Mivorchim – נצבים

  1. We do not bentch the Chodesh. On this Shabbos Hashem Himself bentches the seventh month, satiated with goodness for the entire year, and with this ko'ach, Yidden bentch chodesh the next eleven months .

  2. We read the Haftorah שוש אשיש  .

  3. We say אב הרחמים before Musof.

  4. By Mincha we say צדקתך צדק.

  5. After Mincha we say the last two chapters of פרקי אבות ה-ו.

  6. We do not say " ויהי נועם – ואתה קדוש " on Motzei Shabbos since there is a Yom Tov during the week.

 

Sunday- Erev Rosh Hashanah

 

  1. One should wake up early on Erev Rosh Hashana as Slichos in the morning are longer than usual, and Hataras Nedarim after Shacharis takes time.

  2. Except during Slichos, Tachanun is not said and the Shofar is not blown so as to differentiate between the Tekios of Elul which are a minhag and the Tekios of Rosh Hashana which are d’Oraisa. Another reason given is to confuse the Satan as to when is Rosh Hashana. Thus, one should not blow shofar even at home for practice. However, if the Baal Toke’ah finds it necessary to practice, he may do so in a closed room.

  3. Additional Tzedaka is given specifically to assist those in need with the necessities for Yom Tov.

  4. There is a minhag to visit kivrei tzaddikim.

  5. Some fast on Erev Rosh Hashana till Chatzos or a little later.

  6. We do not cook for Rosh Hashana with sour foods (e.g. vinegar and lemon juice). Some continue this minhag through Simchas Torah. Likewise, the custom is to refrain from bitter foods (e.g. horseradish). Sharp foods (e.g. pepper) are permissible.

    • Note: If it is only a little lemon or vinegar that you are putting in the food, as long as the food does not turn out bitter or sour it is permissible.

  7. We make a point to have sweet and fatty foods as a siman of goodness.

  8. We refrain from nuts ((a) since they cause phlegm making davening difficult and (b) because אגוז gimatria חטא (when spelled without the Aleph).

  9. We take haircuts and toivel in the mikveh lekovod Yom Tov.

  10. Rosh Hashana is a proper time to accept new resolutions in shmiras Torah & Mitzvahs.

  11. We put on Yom Tov clothing in the firm confidence that Hashem will perform miracles for us and find us worthy on Yom Hadin.

 

Hataras Nedarim

  1. The prevailing custom is to do Hataras Nedarim on Erev Rosh Hashana, (in addition to כל נדרי which is said on Yom Kippur). One reason is because of זריזין מקדימין למצוות, while others explain that this is so that we should be free on Rosh Hashana of the obligations (and sin) of unfulfilled נדרים. If one did not have a chance before Rosh hashana, he should do so during the Aseres Yemei Teshuvah, before Yom Kippur.

  2. Hataras nedarim is best performed in front of ten men over Bar Mitzvah. (One reason for this is, because in order to annul a נדר that one might have made in a dream, or to annul a נידוי that one received in a dream, ten are required). Otherwise a Beis Din of 3 is sufficient.

  3. One may use a Beis Din comprised of his relatives for Hataras Nedarim.

  4. It is best if said before Chatzos.

  5. Unless there is no choice, each individual should do hataras nedarim on his own, and not in a group, in front of the Beis din.

  6. Hataras nedarim should be said in a language you understand if you don’t understand the original.

  7. If one is aware of any specific vows or actions which require a Hataras Nedarim, it must be specified to at least one of the three דיינים. In such a case one should consult a Rav who is well versed in these laws.

  8. A woman is also obligated to say Hataras Nedarim. The custom is for her husband to do so on her behalf or she fulfills her requirement if she has in mind while saying כל נדרי on Yom Kippur.

  9. During Hataras Nedarim we make a disclaimer for all future vows that we will make. However this can only be relied upon in certain situations. In general, when accepting something upon oneself, one should always be careful to specify that it is בלי נדר.

The First Evening of Rosh Hashana:

  1. Before lighting candles, extra Tzedaka is given, for two days of Yom Tov.

  2. Candles should be lit before sunset (or 18 minutes before) like on an Erev Shabbos. If for whatever reason, you did not light then, they should be lit before the Seudah at night from a pre existing flame.

  3. 2 brachos are said when lighting candles: 1. שהחיינו 2. להדליק נר של יום טוב. Some say להדליק נר של יום הזכרון.

  4. If a man lights because a woman is not present, he does not bentch שהחיינו now, but rather by Kiddush. If he forgot and bentched now שהחיינו, he does not repeat it by Kiddush.

  5. If you’re eating elsewhere, remember to light candles in your own home or to arrive at your host preferably before Yom Tov begins, and light candles there.

(Note: the best option when sleeping at home and eating elsewhere is to light candles at home and make kiddush there before continuing the meal at the host, or to light candles that will last until you come back home from the Seudah, and eat something next to the candles when you come back).

  1. The avodah of Rosh Hashana is קבלת עול, accepting yoke of שמים. As such, even great people should spend their time on the seemingly trivial avoda of reciting Tehillim at every free moment, sleeping as little as possible and avoiding דברים בטלים (idle chat) as much as possible; like a servant who does not have a spare moment and is serving his Master and like a child who won’t rest in the excitement of greeting his Father.

 

Maariv

 

  1. An avel ר”ל may daven for the amud if he’s the regular baal tefilla (or most desirable by the congregation)

  2. During Shmone Esrei of Aseres Yemei Teshuvah (starting with the first night of Rosh hashana) we add: זכרנו לחיים, מי כמוך, המלך הקדוש, וכתוב, ובספר חיים, עושה השלום.

  3. If one forgot זכרנו, מי כמוך, וכתוב, ובספר  if you remember before saying “ה'” (of ברוך אתה ה' that concludes that Bracha) you say it then. If one remembers after saying Hashem’s name, one does not go back.

  4. If one said הא-ל הקדוש and immediately remembered - correct and say המלך הקדוש

  5. If one said הא-ל הקדוש and remembered a little bit after (i.e. after תוך כדי דיבור), or already began to say אתה בחרתנו, return to the beginning of Shmone Esrei.

  6. If one said "הא-ל" and did not yet say "הקדוש" one can correct oneself even after תוך כדי דיבור.

  7. If one said "...וקדושים בכל יום יהללוך סלה ברוך אתה ה' המלך הקדוש" and forgot to say "לדור ודור המליכו וכו' ובכן תן פחדך" one does not need to go back, and continues davening. (If one is unsure, he can continue davening).

  8. If one is unsure if he said המלך הקדוש on Rosh Hashanah he doesn’t repeat shmoneh esrei, (if he knows that he said ובכן תן פחדך וכו’). Since the nusach is totally different, we assume he wouldn’t have said הא-ל הקדוש.

  9. It is brought in Sforim that saying "לדוד מזמור" with כוונה is the כלי to draw down gashmiyus for the year.

  10. On the first night we wish a man "לשנה טובה תכתב ותחתם"and a woman "לשנה טובה תכתבי ותחתמי", because the primary judgment is the first night until Tekios on the first day

  11. It is a mitzvah to eat and drink but one should avoid frivolity and maintain a proper Yiras Hashem.

  12. The symbolic simanim (aside from Challah in honey), are eaten tonight only. Some eat them on both nights.

  13. We eat a pomegranate as one of the simanim on the first night. In an area where is is a seasonal fruit and not available year round, you need to bentch "שהחיינו". Since you’re making "שהחיינו" anyway during Kiddush, you can have the fruit in front of you in mind. You then would not need to make another "שהחיינו". Or don’t have it in front of you and then you would make a special "שהחיינו" on it

  14. The Challah is dipped in honey. 

    1. After eating Challah, an apple is cut and dipped in honey and we say the bracha בורא פרי העץ (having in mind that this bracha will include any fruits you may eat later and for dessert) and then recite the "יהי רצון וכו'".

  15. After this, the pomegranate is eaten. During the meal carrots are eaten as well.

  16. We eat the head of a ram, or more commonly, the head of a fish.

  17. In Birchas Hamazon we add “יעלה ויבוא” “הרחמן” of Yomtov and of Rosh Hashana.

  18. If one forgot to say יעלה ויבא and remembered after saying Hashem’s Name in בונה ירושלים:

    1. If one has not begun the bracha of הטוב והמטיב, then say "ברוך... שנתן...".

    2. If one already said "ברוך" of הטוב והמטיב, then one returns to the beginning of Birchas Hamazon

 

The First Day of Rosh Hashana:

  1. Whoever has כוונה whilst reciting Adon Olam, is guaranteed that his Tefillah is heard, the Satan cannot affect adversely his Tefillos on Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur, and his enemies fall before him

  2. One should learn the meaning of the Tefilos of Rosh Hashana, particularly the Piyutim, so that he understands what he is saying. Accordingly, using an English Machzor is recommended.

  3. If someone is davening by himself, he should not blow Shofar nor daven Musaf during the first three hours of the day (i.e. until the end of the time of krias Shema), (unless he won't be able to do it later).

 

Hearing Shofar

  1. All males over Bar Mitzvah must hear Shofar from a male adult over bar Mitzvah.

  2. Women are not obligated to hear Shofar. Some Poskim say that women accepted it upon themselves as an obligation to hear Shofar.

  3. Males who are in good health should not eat before hearing Shofar i.e. till after davening. Some are lenient with drinking, but it is best not to drink either. There is room for leniency for women to eat before Tekios

  4. One who is weak and needs to eat should not eat המוציא or מזונות (nor alcoholic beverages) more than the size of a כביצה. If he needs more, it would be best to arrange that he hears Tekios (30 sounds) first and then eat.

  5. The one who is blowing the Shofar must have in mind to be מוציא those that are listening, and the ones who  are listening must have in mind to be יוצא.

  6. If the בעל תוקע had in mind to be מוציא whoever hears the Shofar, then even a listener in another house of whom the בעל תוקע is unaware, is nevertheless יוצא, (if the listener had in mind to be יוצא). Thus, one who was outside the Shul but heard Tekios is יוצא, since the בעל תוקע in Shul has in mind to be מוציא everyone.

  7. One has to make sure to hear every Shofar sound from beginning to end (without interruption or distractions) in order to be יוצא, even if the sound is very long (more than the שיעור). Therefore one should not clear one’s throat etc during the sound of a Shofar.

  8. לכתחילה you blow Shofar standing, without leaning on anything such that if it were moved, you would fall.

  9. It is best to blow on the right side of the mouth and with the wide end of the Shofar facing upwards,  not  sideways.

    • If it's difficult to blow the Shofar on the right of the mouth, then the wide side of the Shofar should be facing right).

  10. Before blowing the Shofar, two Berachos are recited. 1. שהחיינו 2. לשמוע קול שופר. On the second day, the בעל תוקע should לכתחילה wear a new garment for שהחיינו, although שהחיינו is recited either way.

  11. To be יוצא the Mitzvah of Shofar, you must hear 3 times (a set of) Tekiah Shevarim Teruah Tekiah, 3 times (a set of) Tekiah Shevarim Tekiah, and 3 times (a set of) Tekiah Teruah Tekiah, for a total of 30 sounds. (In Shul, a total of (at least) 100 sounds are blown, including the sounds blown before, during, and after Musaf)

  12. The Baal Toke’ah should be well versed in the halachos of Tekios, and its inner significance and kavanos.

  13. If there is a bris in Shul it is done before blowing Shofar.

  14. When the Baal Toke’ah makes the brachos for Shofar, everyone should have in mind to be יוצא the brochos as well as the mitzvah of Shofar and not answer ברוך הוא וברוך שמו.

  • If one arrived in shul in the middle of the brachos, he should say the brochos quietly as long as there is enough time to finish the brachos before the Shofar blowing begins.

  • Otherwise, listen to Tekios, be yotzah, and then make the brochos before Tekios of mussaf.

  • A woman who plans to leave before the next set of Tekios should not make a bracha even though she missed the bracha from the chazan.

15)  One should not make any הפסק of talking at all from tekios till the end of mussaf.

    • If one spoke inadvertently even words unrelated to Tekios, you do not repeat the brochos.

    • If one spoke after the brachos, before the shofar was blown, you say over the brachos .

  • One who uses an electronic hearing aid, should rather hear the Shofar without the help of the hearing aid.

  • Al pi kabbalah, one should look at the face of the Baal Toke'ah after tekios.

 

The Shofar

1) If a Shofar has a crack or hole, a Rabbi well-versed in these Halachos should be consulted.

2)A Shofar should best be a ram’s horn, in order to invoke the merit of עקידת יצחק, although the horns of other kosher animals (e.g. sheep and goat) may also be used.

How to blow shofar

  1. A Tekiah is a long plain note. In each set, the length of the Tekiah is based on the size of the middle of that set, (e.g. in the set of Tekiah Shevarim Teruah Tekiah, the Tekiah is based on the length of the Sevarim Teruah).

  2. In the set of Tekiah Shevarim Teruah Tekiah, the Tekiah should לכתחילה be the length of at least 18 very small Shofar blasts (“Teruos”) combined, and according to some poskim, it should be a little longer. (Some say that according to those who blow the Shevarim and Teruah in 2 separate breaths, לכתחילה the Tekiah should be at least the length of 24 short Shofar blasts combined, to account for the breath in between). This applies to every Tekiah in this set, both the first and last.

2) In the sets of Tekiah Shevarim Tekiah and Tekiah Teruah Tekiah, the length of the Tekiah should לכתחילה be the length of at least 9 small Shofar blasts (“Teruos”) combined. According to some poskim, in the set of Tekiah Shevarim Tekiah it should be a little longer (because this is the length of the Shevarim). The above applies to every Tekiah in the set, both the first and last.

(Some say that in the sets of Tekiah Shevarim Tekiah and Tekiah Teruah Tekiah, לכתחילה it's best that it should be at least the length of 18 short Shofar blasts combined).

3. The Shevarim are 3 consecutive “broken” Shofar sounds, longer than a Teruah, shorter than a Tekiah. In the set of Tekiah Shevarim Teruah Tekiah, each one of the 3 Shevarim blasts (independently) should לכתחילה be the length of at least 3 small Shofar blasts combined (or a little longer), and should be no longer than the amount of eight short Shofar blasts combined.

4.In the set of Tekiah Shevarim Tekiah, each one of the 3 Shevarim blasts (independently) should לכתחילה be the length of at least 3 very small Shofar blasts combined (or a little longer), and according to some poskim, לכתחילה it should be no longer than the amount of five  short Shofar blasts combined.

5.The Teruah is a minimal, short Shofar sound (“Tu”). לכתחילה one should blow at least 9 consecutive Teruos, both in the set of Tekiah Shevarim Teruah Tekiah, and Tekiah Teruah Tekiah.

6.The abovementioned for the Shofar sounds is לכתחילה but בדיעבד even if someone blew a shorter Tekiah, the Shevarim longer or a bit shorter, or less than 9 Teruos, it may be okay. A Rov should be consulted. There are also various Halachos regarding someone who made a mistake during Tekios.

7.It is very important to practice blowing Shofar so that one blows correctly.

8.Some are careful that each Tekiah sound should be the same throughout, e.g. the sound of the Shofar should not change from a high pitch to a low pitch during that sound (as commonly happens). However many are not careful about this (as long as there is no actual interruption in the sound), and seemingly so is מנהג העולם.

9.In some communities, the Shvarim sound is the same type as a plain Tekiah sound, with the only difference being in the length of the sound. In other communities, the Shevarim sounds are blown in a certain “intonation” or “rhythmic pattern”. One should learn this from a qualified בעל תוקע, to make sure he is blowing properly both according to Halacha and Minhag.

10.Although there is a minimal length required for the Tekiah, there is no maximal length, and one may blow a very long Tekiah. Similarly, one may blow many Teruos, even more than nine. The custom is not to blow more than three Shevarim.

11. Each individual Shofar sound (i.e. the Tekiah, all the three Shevarim, and all the Teruos) have to be blown in one breath without interruption. If one stopped to breathe or made an interruption while blowing a sound, it is not valid, and one may have to blow over that “set” (e.g one set of Tekiah Shevarim Teruah Tekiah).

12. Therefore if one is blowing a very long Tekiah, or many Teruos, he has to be careful to do them all in one breath. Similarly all 3 Shevarim have to be blown in one breath.

13. Conversely, one should not blow two separate Shofar sounds (e.g. Tekiah and Shevarim) together in one breath, even if he is pausing in between them so that they are recognizably separate. One should therefore make sure to actively take a breath between each separate sound.

14. There are different Minhogim regarding “Shevarim Teruah” of their set, if they are blown in two separate breaths, or in one breath with a small break in between them, so that they are recognizably separate. Some blow the Shevarim Truah in the Tekios before Musaf in one breath, and during Musaf in 2 breaths.

Mussaf

  1. If the floor is marble or stone, there should be a separation eg paper towels so as not to bow down directly onto the floor. On a wooden or laminated floor or carpet, bowing directly on the floor is fine.

  2. According to many opinions, if one is davening Musaf without a Minyan for whatever reason, he does not blow Shofar during his Shmone Esreh like the Minyan does  (according to Nusach Sefard). He should preferably hear the 30 sounds that he is obligated to hear, before he davens Musaf. Since the minhag is to hear a total of 100 Shofar sounds, he should blow extra afterwards to make up those sounds for a total of 100.

  3. The Chazan stands slightly away from the Amud to have space to bow down without moving his feet.

  4. Minhag Yisrael is to ensure children participate in some part of davening and tekios according to their age and abilities (if they will not disturb others).

  5. If possible, arrangements should be made to bring children to shul for Birchas Cohanim.

 

Afternoon

 

If you already heard Shofar and are blowing for women or others who have not heard yet, you should have the listener say the brachos. If they don't know how to say the Berachos, if it's a man you can make the berachos for them, if it's a woman who wants to hear Shofar, blow without berachos.

  1. Children may practice blowing shofar after davening, but adults may not blow Shofar, except for someone who has not yet heard.

  2. If one forgot Yaaleh veyavo in bentching by day, the din is the same as by night (see above). There is one difference: If one has already begun the bracha of הטוב והמטיב, and therefore missed יעלה ויבוא, whereas by night you start bentching again, the din by day is you finish bentching and skip יעלה ויבוא. (The reason is that there are opinions who maintain that one should fast on Rosh Hashana day. According to them, there is no meal and no bentching on Rosh Hashana. Though we do not pasken this opinion, we nonetheless would not go back if we erred in bentching)

  3. We do not take a nap Rosh Hashana by day. Wasting time is like sleeping. Time should be used constructively. Some permit sleeping after chatzos.

  4. Nothing may be prepared by a Yid from the first day to the second day.

  5. The correct time for Tashlich is after Mincha today. If you missed it, you could make it up during Aseres Yemei Teshuva

 

The Second Night of Rosh Hashanah:

  1. Only after nightfall, tzeis (and if possible, after lighting candles), may preparations for the meal begin.

  2. Candles should be lit after it is dark, and close to the time of the meal, and fire taken from a pre-existing flame. Two brachos are said 1. להדליק נר 2. שהחיינו

  3. During שהחיינו, have in mind and in sight the new fruit (i.e. a seasonal fruit that is not readily available year round), (or she could wear new clothing and have that in mind). Even if you have nothing new, you still say שהחיינו.

  4. Those who are not eating at home should not forget to light candles.

  5. The new fruit is placed where it can be seen by those making Kiddush, so they can have it in mind when saying the bracha of שהחיינו. If the fruit is not present, new clothing is also good. But either way, the bracha is still said.

  6. Immediately after Kiddush the new fruit is eaten (and שהחיינו is not said again). If one ate a כזית (as is the custom) a bracha achrona is said (on the fruit, but not on the wine.) Then we go wash for bread.

 

Havdala

  • We make a havdala as a regular Motzei Yom Tov, without בשמים ונר. The מנהג העולם is to start from ברכת הגפן, while others start with the pesukim הנה קל ישועתי וגו’.

צום גדליה

  1. The fast begins from עלות השחר.

  2. If one wants to wake up and eat before the fast starts, a Tnai needs to be made before going to sleep. If one doesn't usually drink when he gets up, he should לכתחילה make a תנאי before going to sleep to be able to drink before the fast starts.

  3. One who is starting to eat within a half hour before עלות השחר, should not eat המוציא or מזונות or alcoholic beverages more than the size of a כביצה, (this applies also to everyday, not just a fast day) .

  4. Those who have difficulty fasting should ask a shalah by a Rav.

  5. No brushing teeth / mouthwash, (unless one is sensitive, in which case he should be careful not to swallow).

  6. No candy or nosh even for children who are not fasting.  

  7. In Shachris we say special Slichos. We read ויחל by שחרית and מנחה.

  8. In Mincha, those who are fasting add עננו in שמע קולנו. (If one forgot and remembered after saying Hashem’s Name in the bracha of שומע תפלה, say it after אלקי נצור before the second יהיו לרצון).

  9. There is a מנהג to give צדקה by מנחה on a fast day. some give the amount of the meals they would have eaten.

 

Shabbos Shuva:

  1. In Magen Avos on Friday night we say המלך הקדוש instead of הא-ל הקדוש.

  2. There are those that have the custom of lighting a "תשובה ליכט" candle for Shabbos Shuva.

  3. On Motzei Shabbos we don't say "ויהי נועם – ואתה קדוש"

  4. We wait until after Yom Kippur to make Kiddush Levana as that is an auspicious time.

 

Aseres Yemei Teshuva:

  1. Between Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur there are seven consecutive days, including one of each of the days of the week. These days should be used for rectifying and completing the avodah that was done in the past year, and as a preparation for the avodah that will be done in the coming New Year. Sunday corresponds to all the Sundays of the year, etc., and Shabbos Shuva corresponds to all the Shabbasos of the year.

  2. During these days we should increase in Torah, Mitzvos and Tzedaka, and to minimize as much as possible from our daily affairs. We also try to do חומרות even if we don't do them year round. One who eats Pas Akum during the year, should be careful during these days to only eat Pas Yisroel.

  3. During these days we should examine our actions and do Teshuva. More Teshuva is required in a case where one is  unsure whether he sinned, than in a the case when one knows for sure that he sinned, because one may think that he did not sin and won't regret it with a complete heart. particularly one should make sure to fix issues between him and his fellow man, by making amends and asking forgiveness.

  4. Shacharis: After ישתבח we add "שיר המעלות".

  5. In Shemone Esrei add: לחיים זכרנו; מי כמוך; המלך הקדוש; המלך המשפט; וכתוב; ובספר חיים; and עושה השלום

    1. If one forgot "זכרנו" or "מי כמוך" or "וכתוב" or "ובספר" and remembers in middle of the bracha in which it is said, the addition is then said. However, if Hashem’s Name (of ברוך אתה ה') was said, one does not go back.

    2. If one said הא-ל הקדוש and immediately remembered-correctly say המלך הקדוש

    3. If one said הא-ל הקדוש and remembered a little bit later (after תוך כדי דיבור), or already began to say אתה חונן, he returns to the beginning of Shemone Esrei.

    4. If one said "הא-ל" and did not yet say "הקדוש" one can correct himself.

    5. If one is unsure if he said המלך הקדוש he should return to the beginning.

    6. If one said "מלך אוהב" and immediately remembered-correctly say המלך המשפט

    7. If one said "מלך אוהב" and remembered a little later (after תוך כדי דיבור), or forgot totally, he finishes davening. However, it is best if he repeats Shemone Esrei as a  תפלת נדבה

  6. The full Avinu Malkeinu is said each day of Aseres Yemei Teshuvah during Shacharis and Mincha (except for Mincha of Erev Shabbos, Shabbos, and Erev Yom Kippur.)

  7. In Avinu Malkeinu we say "כתבנו" as in all of the Aseres Yemei Teshuva.

  8. Some have the minhag to continue saying Slichos during Aseres Yemei Teshuva.

 

כתיבה וחתימה טובה!

 

 

 

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