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Yom Kippur Halachic Digest 5778

Yom Kippur Halachic Digest 5778

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שבת קודש יום הכיפורים ה'תשע"ח

HALACHIC DIGEST

Compiled by Rabbi Yoseph Vigler & Rabbi Mendel Zirkind

Edited by Rabbi Sholom Zirkind

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Rabbi@MayanYisroel.net

לעלוי נשמת הרב יצחק בן הרב אליעזר צבי זאב ע"ה צירקינד

 

EREV SHABBOS YOM KIPPUR

כפרות

  • The best time for (shechita of) kaporos is the last third of the night before alos hashachar of Erev Yom Kippur. (2:20 - 5:29am in NYC), the time of Hashem’s חסד ורחמים.

  • However, you may do kaparos any weekday of Aseres Yemei Teshuva. If you missed it, according to some it can still be done on Hoshana Rabba.

  • Some have a custom that men go to Mikvah before Kaporos.

  • A rooster should be used for a male and a hen for women. Bedieved vice versa works too.

  • A pregnant woman needs 2 hens and 1 rooster, since it is a ספק what she will give birth to and it’s lechatchila one chicken per person.

  • If an ultrasound shows the gender conclusively take only 1 extra chicken based on the baby’s gender. If the ultrasound wasn’t fully conclusive you need 3.

  • A woman who was told she has twins, should do the same kaporos as any pregnant woman.

  • White chickens are best, as it says “I will whiten (your sins) like snow”. but any color is good, except black which represents severity. Still, one must not specifically seek out white chickens

  • If chickens are unavailable you may use live fish or money (and say זה הכסף ילך לצדקה וכו’).    

  • After each בני אדם swing the chicken over the head saying "זה חליפתי זה תמורתי זה כפרתי" [women say "זאת"](some do a total of 9 times). The acronym is ח'ת'ך' - the name of the Angel of life.

  • If doing kaporos for others (e.g. a child), say "זה חליפתך" [for a female "זאת"].

  • Preferably do your own kapara before doing for others - “let an innocent atone for a guilty”.

  • If the chicken is dirty, wash it or wrap it to avoid foul odor when saying the Pessukim.

  • Preferably the Shechita should be done immediately after doing the Kaporos.       

  • If the שחיטה was not properly done, you must redo the kapara.

  • If the שחיטה is good you’re yotzeh even if the chicken is found to be treif later.

  • Covering the blood is a mitzvah of the שוחט, so you need his permission. The bracha is “אקב"ו על כסוי דם בעפר” with a סגול under the beis. If possible, say the beracha after the שוחט checks his knife after the Shechita although in reality this is impractical.

  • Donate the value of kaporos to the poor (but not the actual chicken lest you embarrass them).

  • Kaporos money used should not be from Ma’aser.

 

שחרית

  • From this morning until the end of Tishrei, we do not say Tachanun.

  • We omit מזמור לתודה, למנצח יענך,תפלה לדוד, אבינו מלכנו.

  • Some say אבינו מלכנו on Friday Erev Y”K, since on Shabbos Yom Kippur it is skipped

  • The minhag is to ask the gabbai or Rov for lekach (honey cake) and eat it - if it was decreed on you to beg this year, you should be yotzeh by begging for lekach now.

 

מחילה

  • Yom Kippur only atones for averos between us and Hashem. For averos against one’s fellow man, you must first ask forgiveness from the victim directly so that Y”K can atone.

  • Before Yom Kippur ask forgiveness from anyone you need to get it from.

  • If your friend doesn’t forgive, request 3 times (using 3 different approaches).

  • Requesting mechila each time needs to be done in front of three people.

    1. (Shulchan Aruch HaRav holds you need three people even the first time you ask forgiveness. Others say you ask once privately. If he does not forgive you, take 3 people another 3 times)

    2. If the person refuses to forgive, you need not ask again. You proclaim before 10 people that you tried to appease him, so that nobody suspects that you never tried. But if one wronged his teacher, he must ask forgiveness as many times as it takes, until he forgives.

  • If it may embarrass the victim, do not specify how you hurt him, only that you wronged him.

  • The one who was wronged should not be cruel about forgiving.

  • If you let out a bad name about someone publicly, then strictly speaking the victim need not forgive. However, midas Chassidus is to forgive nonetheless

  • One should ask מחילה from a non-Jew too.

 

Meals

  • It is a Mitzvah to eat extra on Erev Y”K, (more than the amount of one day).

  • Fasting today is forbidden. Eating is a mitzvah today even for one with a heter to not fast Y”K (unless it’ll make him ill).

  • At meals today, the challah is dipped into honey.  

  • We have a meal (with challah) early in the day, before Mincha, in addition to Seudah mafsekes

  • The table should be set as on Shabbos with a tablecloth and round Challos.

  • Some wear shabbos clothes for the meal. (or even all day long).

  • We eat fish & chicken that digest well, not meat. In the first meal it’s a mitzvah to eat fish

  • We eat kreplach (dough with ground chicken - not meat).

  • Men should not eat all day garlic and eggs. Some also include: aged wine and many fruits.

  • Sesame seeds should not be eaten all day.

  • Dairy is avoided at Seudah Mafsekes. Some forbid dairy all day (except milk in coffee).

  • At Seudah Mafsekes men avoid spicy foods and alcohol. Some say to avoid salt completely.

 

Mikvah

  • It’s a mitzvah to immerse in the mikvah preferably after midday.

  • Some toivel after Seudah Mafsekes. Many toivel several times - before Shacharis, before mincha and after Seudah Mafsekes, but the minimum is once

  • Even young adults from bar mitzvah should go to Mikvah.   

  • One should dip 3 times, but if that is not possible, dipping once is sufficient.

  • If no Kosher mikvah is available, one may dip in a ground swimming pool, but not if it is detached. The water must be stationary (e.g. not whilst the water is being emptied out).

  • Ensure there’s no chatzitza on the body, preventing mikvah water from reaching all over. Nails should be cut and cleaned (it is best to cut the hand and toe nails on separate days), hair untangled, teeth flossed and the body pre-washed.

  • Where possible, the tevilah of Erev Yom Kippur is for married women too.

  • If you are ill and cannot go, some poskim say you may be yotze by showering provided that:

    • You stand under the shower for at least 3 – 4 minutes.

    • The hands should be placed loosely so that the water reaches all over. 

    • The bottom of the feet should be moistened beforehand.

    • There should be no Chatzitzah on the body.

 

Afternoon

  • Mincha is davened early enough to say Al Cheit and eat Seuda mafsekes etc.

  • Give extra Tzedaka before Mincha. The Baal Shem Tov says that from the ringing  sound of the coins, the klipos, (= the forces of evil,) are dispersed.

  • Minhagim vary if we do malkus and when - before Mikvah or after Mincha

    • A leather belt is used for malkus.

    • The “whipping” is done lightly.

    • Shulchan Aruch says to do malkus 39 times on the back, (on right shoulder, left shoulder, then middle lower back, and repeat). Both the giver of malkus and recipient say “והוא רחום יכפר וגו’ three times, for a total of 39 words. Some say the recipient say אשמתי בגדתי וכו

    • The one receiving malkus bends down on his knees, facing north with his back to south.

  • In Mincha, after the first “יהיו לרצון”, say the Vidui whilst bending (like by Modim). We bang on the chest (or heart) at Ashamnu and Al Cheit, and some also bang by סלח לנו מחל לנו כפר לנו.

    • If you forgot vidui you need not repeat mincha, but you can say it even after Mincha.

  • There is neither Tachnun nor Avinu Malkenu after Chazoras HaShatz.

 

סעודה המפסקת

  • Seudah Mafsekes is after Mincha.

  • We wash and dip the bread in honey .

  • Fish is not eaten during this meal because it increases zera.

  • It is a Mitzvah to add from chol to kodesh - to accept Yom Kippur a few minutes earlier, and finish a few minutes later. (This applies every Shabbos and Yom Tov).

  • Women usually accept the fast at licht bentchen so they must remove leather shoes prior

  • If you intend to eat after bentching, it is best to have so in mind (preferably verbalize it) before bentching.

 

Before the Fast

  • Some toivel after Seudah Mafsekes, close to Yom Kippur, provided there’s time before sunset.

  • Licht bentchen: We light candles as every Shabbos and Yom Tov.

  • The brochos are  להדליק נר של שבת ושל יום הכיפורים and שהחיינו.

  • If no one is staying home after Licht bentchen, either sit by the light of the candles for a while now or, ensure the candles burn till you return home later.

  • Married men light a 24 hour “lebedike licht” - in addition to Yizkor candle for deceased parents. Some light the “lebedike licht” in Shul and Yizkor licht at home; others do the opposite.

  • Another 24 hour candle is left burning since after Yom Kippur we can only make havdala on a candle that was lit before Yom Kippur (even on Motzei Shabbos)

  • We wear non-leather shoes.

  • Yom Kippur is a happy Yom Tov. Set a white table cloth just like any Yom Tov.

  • Before Kol Nidrei, utilize the moment when the heart is receptive to G‑d to bentch your kids for a good year and yiras Shamayim . Begin with Birchas Kohanim. Add brochos of your choice. Some use the nusach printed in the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch.  

 

YOM KIPPUR EVENING

  • Everybody (married according to most minhagim) wears a tallis for Maariv.

  • The bracha on the Tallis should be recited before sunset.

    • Whenever you put on a Tallis (except on Shabbos according to some), first check that the strings are kosher unless you wore that Tallis earlier today (by Shachris)).

  • Men (except in 1st year of marriage) wear Kittels, to portray angelic purity and lack of sin.

  • Time permitting, say Al cheit and vidui at sunset, before Kol Nidrei. It should be said standing without leaning on anything that if moved, you would fall, and according to the other laws of saying Vidui mentioned earlier. Some say special Tefilos that contain Vidui at this time.

  • According to the Baal Shem Tov’s tradition to say 3 chapters of Tehillim daily starting from the first day of Elul, before Kol Nidrei chapters 115-123 are said.

  • The number of Sifrei Torah taken out before Kol Nidrei varies by custom.

  • It’s a mitzvah to purchase the right to take out the first Sefer Torah at Kol Nidrei.

  • 3 people, as a Beis Din, stand by the chazzan as he begins. Everyone (including women) should say Kol nidrei along with the Chazan, loud enough that the people next to you can hear it. One should make sure to understand the words.

  • As the chazzan says שהחיינו, everyone recites it themselves (except ladies or anyone who lit candles and said the bracha earlier) and complete it in time to answer אמן to his bracha.

  • Kabbolas Shabbos begins with Mizmor leDovid.

  • ברוך שם כבוד מלכותו is said aloud all day also in kriyas shema al hamitah.

  • After Shemoneh Esreh, we say ויכולו and מגן אבות, substituting with "המלך הקדוש".

  • At the end of Maariv (after לדוד מזמור) we say מזמור לדוד ה' רועי, kaddish and ברכו

  • We omit Avinu Malkenu until the end of Neilah.

  • One should learn the meaning of the Tefilos of Yom Kippur, particularly the Selichos and Piyutim, and understand them. Accordingly, using an English Machzor is recommended.

  • Whenever the Chazan repeats Vidui, the congregation stands up and say together with him.

  • After maariv, some have the custom to say the first 4 chapters of Tehillim. Some say the whole Tehillim (and repeat the first 4 chapters). Additionally, according to the tradition from the Baal Shem Tov mentioned earlier, before one goes to sleep he says chapters 124-132.

  • It's best that men not wrap themselves with blankets (and at least not cover their feet) when going to sleep (so as not to warm up the body).

  • The five prohibitions of Yom Kippur are

    • eating & drinking,

    • washing (even just putting a finger in cold water),

    • wearing leather shoes (even if only part of the shoe is leather),

    • marital relations (including the Harchakos),

    • putting on any kind or cream or lotion etc.

  • Even small children don’t wear leather shoes, and we do not wash/bathe them.

  • Anything that is prohibited on Shabbos is prohibited on Yom Kippur.

 

YOM KIPPUR DAY

There are varying opinions when and whether we bentch the bracha שעשה לי כל צרכי

    • Someskip it since we don’t wear leather shoes, (non-leather shoes don’t count).

    • Others do make the bracha in the morning, particularly if wearing non leather shoes

    • Some omit the bracha entirely.

    • Others recite it at night when putting on leather shoes.

  • Whoever has kavana at the beginning of Adon Olam, is guaranteed his Tefillah is heard, the Satan cannot negatively affect his Tefillos on Yamim Noraim, and his enemies fall before him.

  • On a marble or stone floor you cannot bow directly without a separation e.g. paper towels. On a wooden or laminated floor or carpet, bowing directly on the floor is fine.

  • To ensure the daily requirement of 100 Berachos on Yom Kippur, one should smell בשמים, (you only repeat the Beracha when smelling again if you did not have in mind to smell again). The rest one should be יוצא by listening and answering אמן to the berachos of חזרת הש”ץ and the Aliyos.

  • According to the Baal Shem Tov’s tradition (above), after Mussaf one says chapters 133-141.

 

If One Cannot Fast

  • If you anticipate a shailah about fasting, ask in advance.

  • In case of Pikuach Nefesh, eat and drink small amounts in intervals, under Rabbinic and medical guidance. (unless life and death necessitates more /  more frequently). A Rov must be consulted.

  • When one is required to eat on Yom Kippur for whatever reason,

    • No Kiddush is recited even if Yom Kippur is on Shabbos. and there is no need to eat challah at all, let alone lechem mishneh - because there never was a takana for these on Yom Kippur. This follows Shulchan Aruch haRav. Others say you should have lechem mishneh. Mateh Efraim says that even so, there is no need to exert oneself to get it. 

    • Before eating bread wash hands as is done throughout the year, just like the kohanim wash at duchaning even on Yom Kippur. If one is eating bread less than the the size of an egg, the beracha Al Netilas Yadayim is not said.

    • If you ate enough hamotzi that requires Birkas hamazon, add רצה for Shabbos and "יעלה ויבוא...ביום הכיפורים הזה ביום סליחת העון הזה ביום מקרא קודש הזה". But if you forgot either, you do not go back as is always the דין in a meal where there is no obligation to have bread davka.

  • Nowadays, children under bar or Bas mitzvah need not fast the entire fast.

    • From age 9 or 10 (depending on their strength), they should try fast partially by postponing mealtime for an hour, and then adding more hours based on their strength.

    • Making children under that age fast at all, when they wish to eat, is an error.

    • Make sure the children make brochos before eating.

  • We do not prepare food for after the fast until the fast is over. Preparing food on Yom Kippur for children or ill people is permissible, unless they could prepare it on their own.

 

Washing

  • All washing is prohibited.

  • Neggel vasser should be up to where the knuckles (3 times on each hand). One should have in mind to wash for the mitzvah and not for enjoyment.

  • If you need to wash out the dirt on your eyes, you may do so if you do so regularly.

  • If a part of your body got dirty and needs to be washed, you may wash (only) there.

  • Kohanim wash the entire hand for duchaning. Some have the minhag that the Kohanim wash the entire hand, even past the fingers, already in the morning.

  • A Kallah within 30 days of the wedding can wash her face and hands. Some say that this permissibility does not apply if the Chosson will not see the Kallah the whole day.

  • When entering the bathroom, the kittel should be removed along with the Tallis (and gartel) as they are both clothing designated for davening only.

 

MOTZEI YOM KIPPUR

  • You may blow Shofar even before צאת הכוכבים. However, since people are used to the Shofar being the signal for the end of the fast, it is better to blow after צאת הכוכבים

  • According to the Baal She

  • ‘[poib m Tov’s tradition, after Neilah we say the last 9 chapters of Tehillim.

  • We do not remove the tallis for Maariv until after Kiddush Levanah. But you take the Tallis off your head and wear a hat instead, since night is not the time for Tzitzis. Others leave the tallis on the head for Maariv too.

  • If you mistakenly said “המלך הקדוש” or “המלך המשפט”do not go back.

  • If you mistakenly said זכרנו לחיים"”, or any other of the additions of Aseres Yemei teshuva:

    • If you are still in the middle of that bracha, go back to the beginning of that bracha.

    • If you past that bracha, you finish Shmoneh Esrei and when finished, it is proper to repeat Shmoneh Esrei after as a תפלת נדבה

  • On Motzei Yom Kippur we wish each other a gut Yom Tov.

  • If your candle went out during Yom Kippur light it again now to burn fully.

  • We end up fasting 26 hours on Yom Kippur (Or at least 25 and a bit), corresponding to the Gimatriya of Yud Kay Vav Kay.

  • It is proper to wash the entire hand for neggel vasser without a bracha even a Kohein that washed his entire hand on Yom Kippur for Duchaning.

  • Havdala on Motzei Yom Kippur is always with wine and a candle (unlike other Yamim Tovim).

    • The candle may only be one that was lit from before Yom Kippur (or at least a candle that was not lit by a match but rather, lit from that candle). If you don’t have one, skip the candle entirelyeven though Yom Kippur falls out on Shabbos. .

  • It is preferable to combine another wick to the candle so you have two wicks for havdala

  • It is best to light a 24 hour candle before Yom Kippur dedicated for havdala after Yom Kippur.

  • If you don’t have a dedicated candle, you may use the Yahrzeit candle or Lebedike Licht if you light another candle (or Havdala Licht) from it, and make the beracha on both togather.

  • This year, being motzei Shabbos we use besamim too.

  • Do Kiddush levana if possible, with joy, confident that G‑d bentch us with a healthy good year

  • We sit down to a proper full Seudah. This Seudah draws down gashmiyus for the year.

  • We get involved in a mitzvah immediately and begin building the Succah on Motzei Yom Kippur. At least, discuss the building of the Succah. Some learn a little Mishnayos Succah to be yotzeh.

 

גמר חתימה טובה!

 

 

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