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Tisha B'av Halachic Digest 5776

Tisha B'av Halachic Digest 5776

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תשעה באב נדחה תשע"ו

Halachic Digest

Compiled by Rabbi Yoseph Y. Vigler and Rabbi Mendel Zirkind

Comments Welcome and Appreciated

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לעלוי נשמת הרב יצחק בן הרב אליעזר צבי זאב צירקינד ז"ל

Chazon Bais HaMikdash hashlishi

  • Reb Levi Yitzchok Berdichever taught that Chazon means a vision: on Shabbos Chazon, every Jew experiences a vision of the third Bais hamikdosh. Even if he doesn’t sense it tangibly, the soul senses it.

Erev Shabbos Chazon

  • Cutting nails, polishing shoes, is permitted for Shabbos.

  • It is permitted to wash and iron clothing or the tablecloth, if one has no other for Shabbos.

  • When preparing for Shabbos, one is permitted to taste food even if it has in it meat, to make sure it is ready; it should however be spat out and not swallowed. However, if the purpose is merely to fulfill the custom of tasting of the foods of Shabbos because of טועמיה חיים זכו, it is forbidden.

  • Young children (under 2) who need meat or chicken for their growth, are permitted to eat during the 9 days.

  • If one forgot and made a brocho on meat, one should taste a little of it, so that the brocho should not be in vain.

  • Children under the age of Chinuch may be given meat and wine an hour or two before Shabbos, since the kedusha of Shabbos already starts from then.

Shabbos Chazon

  • The prevalent custom is to wear full Shabbos clothing as always.

  • The Shabbos clothing should not be put on earlier than Chatzos.

  • By laining, Sheni begins by repeating the last passuk of Rishon so as not to begin the aliya with “Eicha”

  • From 1:00 PM (1:02pm upstate) we only study those parts of Torah directly related to the Churban like Iyov, negative sections in Yirmiyahu, Midrash Eicha, Perek Hanizakin in Gittin, Hilchos Avelus etc. This applies even though it is Shabbos, in accordance with the Rama Others follow the Taz who permits all Torah learning on Shabbos.

  • Joyous Seudos Shabbos are conducted, especially emphasizing Ahavas Yisroel.

  • On Shabbos every effort must be made to avoid the appearance of mourning publicly.

  • marital relations on Shabbos except on ליל טבילה or if it was not possible on another night (e.g. if one was away all week long).

  • צדקתך is not said at Mincha and the Perek of Pirkei Avos is not recited after Mincha

  • One may not prepare on Shabbos for after Shabbos e.g by bringing non-leather Tisha B’Av shoes on Shabbos for after Shabbos, even within an Eruv. Likewise, one should not wear such shoes on Shabbos itself in preparation for after Shabbos.

  • Shalosh Seudas is a regular meal and may include meat and wine. Minhagim of mourning like sitting on the ground and dipping the egg in ashes do not apply on Shabbos. It is permitted to eat with a mezuman.

  • Eating is permitted until Shkia 7:56 pm. (8:00pm Upstate)

  • Restrictions of not washing and no creams and lotions also begin at Shkia.

  • Shabbos concludes: 8:40 pm (8:46pm upstate)

Motzei Shabbos Tisha B’Av Nidche

Maariv:

  • Havdala over wine is not made until Sunday night. However, the brocho: “Borei M’orei Haish” is recited as usual on a candle. The brocho on besamim is omitted.

  • It is recommended to delay Maariv for some time after Shabbos ends, giving time to those who did not bring non-leather shoes to Shul before Shabbos to bring them now.

  • One need not change into weekday clothing before Eicha. But upon returning from shul after Eicha, one should not remain in Shabbos clothing. There are those who disagree and do change before Eicha.

  • “Baruch Hamavdil…” must be recited before changing into non-leather shoes.

  • You can come to Shul in Tisha B’Av shoes (after Shabbos is out).

  • If you’re changing shoes in Shul, the Rama says to change after Borechu. (Take care not to touch the shoes when putting them on. If you did touch them, wipe the hands to be able to daven). The chazan must change shoes before Borechu (since he has to have extra concentration in davening).

  • From this point one sits only on a low stool or on the ground

  • White Shabbos table cloths should be removed.

  • We do not wish each other a gut voch.

  • The Paroches is removed, and some remove the Mantel of the Bima as well.

  • We leave minimal lighting needed in Shul.

  • After Shmoneh Esrei the Chazan says Kaddish with Tiskabel, and then we say Eicha. Women too, should read it, even in the house alone .

  • By Eicha the Tsibur says the last Hashivenu aloud with the chazan.

  • Then recite Atah Kadosh, Kaddish without Tiskabel and Aleinu.

  • We minimize the comfort of sleeping e.g. by using one less pillow. Those who have the strength to do so even sleep on the floor.

  • An avel in Shiva r”l may go to Shul by night and day.

  • Some say that an Avel does not daven for the Amud since Tisha B’av is called a Moed. Others say he should daven for the amud.

  • Shabbos dishes should not be washed until chatzos of Tisha B’Av - unless they are causing discomfort or foul odor. If washing by hand, gloves should be worn so that the hands not come into contact with water. Cold water should be used.

Restrictions of Tisha B’Av

  • We remove leather shoes; crocs may be worn, since they are not normal shoes.

  • We do not wash any part of the body, unless specifically necessary to remove dirt.

    • Throughout the day (after using the bathroom and upon awakening), wash only until the knuckles.

    • In the morning after washing the hands, one is allowed to place wet hands over one’s eyes and face.

    • One is not allowed to wash out the mouth. However, mouthwash with a bad taste, is permitted, since one wouldn’t swallow it.

    • Brushing teeth (even without water) is prohibited except in cases of health reasons or great distress (i.e. one feeling extremely distressed if their teeth aren’t brushed) but even then only without water .

  • We do not use creams and lotions.

    • If one is in pain from chapped skin or bruises etc, it is permitted to administer cream.

  • One is allowed to apply deodorant on Tisha b’Av to remove foul odor. However, perfume, cologne or makeup that is specifically meant to enhance appearance or provide good scent is forbidden.

  • Work requiring focused concentration (e.g., gardening, cooking, etc.) is prohibited until midday 12:59pm (1:02pm upstate), since the main Avelus ends at Chatzos. There are those who refrain from work the entire day.

  • Stores should not be opened until midday (unless operated by a Non-Jew, or if it will create a great financial loss). However, food stores that sell food for after the fast may be opened before.

  • Sitting on an ordinary seat is also prohibited until midday. However, when driving a car etc, one may sit on the regular seat, since there is no specific pleasure involved. Likewise the elderly and weak may sit on regular chairs as there is no “pleasure” for them.

  • We do not offer greetings e.g. Good morning.

    • If somebody greets you, you reply by reminding him it is Tisha B’Av

  • There are those who hold that inhaling smoke whilst smoking is a form of eating and prohibited.


Limud Torah

  • The chiyuv of learning Torah every moment applies on Tisha B'Av too. The only difference is what may be learned. The learning must be limited to what is permissible on Tisha B'Av (see above).

Shachris

  • Wash neggel vasser only until the knuckles (as mentioned above).

  • Some omit the brocha “She’asah li kol tzorki”; others do say it.

  • Tallis and Tefilin are not worn until Mincha

  • Do not make the Brocho on Tzitzis nor hold them at any part of davening.

  • The Chazan says Anenu. He omits Birkas Kohanim.

  • Tachanun and Avinu Malkeinu are omitted.

  • After Krias HaTorah recite Kinos, Ashrei, U’va L’tzion (omit “V’ani zos brisi...”) followed by Kaddish without Tiskabel and Aleinu.

  • Skip Shir shel yom & Ein Kelokeinu.

  • Some read Eicha after Shachris individually (not led by a Chazan).

The day of Tisha B’av

  • If one needs to take pills, (or medication which are bitter) for health purposes, they may do so without water. If one can’t swallow without water, they should put something bitter with the water. Suppositories may be taken, since it is not considered eating.

  • One is allowed to swallow their saliva on Tisha B’av.

  • One should not start preparing food for after the fast until after midday (see above).

  • When preparing food it is prohibited to taste anything to see if it needs more salt etc.

  • Children under 9 should fast only the night of Tisha B’av. Older than 9 should try to fast for a few hours of the morning.

  • Children who eat on the fast need not recite havdala beforehand.

  • One who has a heter to eat on Tisha B’Av should recite havdala first. It is best to let a child, preferably between the age of 6 and 9, drink. Or one can recite havdala over malt beer, tea or coffee and drink oneself.

    • If a woman has a heter to eat she can get a man to make the havdala and she drinks the wine, or she can recite havdala herself

  • There is debate amongst the Poskim as to whether one who eats on Tisha b’Av says Nachem in Benching. Consult a Rov.

  • A child, or an adult who has a heter to eat and drink, should not indulge more than is necessary.

  • One who will be traveling on Tisha B’av (in cases of need) to a location where the fast will start and end before the time of his current location (e.g. going from the US to Eretz Yisroel), may end his fast at the time it ends in the new location, even if he didn’t fast an entire day.

  • One should not exercise for it distracts one’s focus of the Churbon.

  • One should refrain from traveling before Chatzos if at all possible, so as not to be distracted from the Churbon.

Mincha

  • Tsedoko - give the amount of money you saved by not buying meals today.

  • The paroches is put back. Likewise we turn all the lights back on as usual.

  • Put on Tallis and Tefilin (which remain on through Mincha)

  • As every day, recite all three paragraphs of Shema (do not repeat Hashem Elokeichem Emes)

  • Shir shel yom, Ein Keilokeinu

  • Korbanos before Mincha

  • In Shmoneh Esreh, add Nachem & Anenu in Shome'a Tefila.

  • The chazan recites Birkas Kohanim.

  • If you forgot Nachem, say it right after Anenu. If you forgot then too, say it before "Vesechezeno" or before "Ve'al kulam". If you missed that too, you don't go back.

  • Those who don Rabbenu Tam Tefillin do so after Mincha. Recite Shma and Kadesh Li, making sure to finish before shkia (7:54pm). (7:58pm upstate)

  • Fast concludes at 8:24 pm. (8:28pm upstate).

Motzei Tisha B’Av

  • After Maariv:

(a) Change to regular shoes before Kiddush Levana if possible. Otherwise change at home.

(b) Wash neggel vasser in alternating fashion as we do each morning, without a Brocho

(c) Rinse out the mouth

(d) Recite Kiddush Levonah

  • All the restrictions of the 9 days are lifted, since Tisha B’Av was a day late. However, meat and wine should not be consumed tonight (except for the wine of havdala).

  • Recite Havdala with no candle and no besamim. Some omit the pessukim - “Hinei Keil...:”.

  • A woman who wants to break her fast before her husband comes home from Maariv, can recite havdala herself on grape juice, tea, coffee or malt beer. If she finds this difficult, she can break her fast, and wait for her husband to recite havdala later.

    • A woman who makes havdala can only be motzi other women, but cannot be motzi any man, nor even a male child.

  • A man who must recite havdala for his family should not be yotze havdala in shul

May we be zoche to celebrate Tisha B'av 5776 in the Beis Hamikdash hashlishi in Yerushalayim!





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