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Tisha B'av Halachic Digest 5777

Tisha B'av Halachic Digest 5777

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Mayan Yisroel Halachic Digest

תשעה באב תשע"ז

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Compiled by Rabbi Yoseph Y. Vigler and Rabbi Mendel Zirkind

Comments welcome and appreciated - Rabbi@MayanYisroel.net

לעילוי נשמת הרב יצחק ז"ל בן יבלחט"א הרב אליעזר צבי זאב צירקינד שליט"א

 

The Nine Days

  • Laundry is forbidden even for kids returning from camp unless they have nothing else to wear, in which case you may wash ONLY the clothing they need for the rest of the 9 days.

 

Erev Shabbos Chazon

 

  • Cutting nails, polishing shoes, is permitted for Shabbos.

  • It is permitted to wash and iron clothing or a table cloth for Shabbos if one has no other.

  • When preparing for Shabbos, one is permitted to taste food even if it has in it meat, to make sure it is tasty; but it must be spat out and not swallowed.  However, merely to fulfill the custom of tasting the Shabbos dishes because of טועמיה חיים זכו, is forbidden.

  • Young children (under 2) who need meat or chicken, may eat during the 9 days.

  • If one forgot and made a brocho on meat, one should taste a little of it, so that the brocho should not be in vain.

  • Children under the age of Chinuch (about 6 years old) may be given meat and wine an hour or two before Shabbos sunset, since the holiness of Shabbos already begins then.

 

Chazon Bais HaMikdash hashlishi

 

  • Reb Levi Yitzchok Berdichever taught that Chazon means a vision: on Shabbos Chazon, every Jew experiences a vision of the third Bais hamikdash. Even if he doesn’t sense it tangibly, the soul senses it.

 

Shabbos Chazon

  • The prevalent custom is to wear full Shabbos clothing as always.

  • The Shabbos clothing should not be put on earlier than Chatzos.

  • We eat meat and drink wine on Shabbos. If Seudah Shlishis extends into the night, past Tzeis, one may continue to eat meat according to many poskim, until one bentches and ends the Seudah officially.

  • Some sing a slow tune for L’cha Dodi. Others prefer to sing davka a lively nigun so it should not appear in any way as mourning on Shabbos.  

  • Those who go to Mikvah on every Erev / Shabbos may do so this Erev / Shabbos too.

  • By laining, most have the minhag to begin the Aliya of Sheni by repeating the last passuk of Rishon so as not to begin the aliya with the word “Eicha”; others maintain the way it’s printed in the chumoshim.

  • One should make extra effort to Daven with Kavana this Shabbos, which is special for it uplifts all the Tefilos of the entire year.

 

Motzei Shabbos

 

  • Although we do not wear Shabbos clothing during the nine days, you need not remove them right after Shabbos, since the problem is putting them and not leaving them on if they were already on.. (Bichlal, one should really remain in Shabbos clothing every Motzei Shabbos for the Seudas Melave Malka out of respect for the Shabbos Malka).

  • The restrictions of the 9 days continue (and in some aspects are more stringent the week of Tisha B’av) including not eating meat, not drinking wine, laundering clothing etc.

  • Make havdala over wine, but have a child - old enough to know how to make brachos, but too young to understand the mourning over the churban – drink the wine. If there’s no child present, make havdala over wine and drink it yourself.

 

Before Tisha B’Av

 

  • Pregnant and nursing women or others who have difficulty fasting should remember to ask a shailah before the fast.

 

Monday Erev Tisha B’Av

 

  • From 1:01 PM (1:04pm upstate) we only study those parts of Torah directly related to the Churban like Iyov, negative sections in Yirmiyahu, Midrash Eicha, Perek Hanizakin in Gittin, Hilchos Avelus etc

  • One should not read any book that brings pleasure. However reading history books or stories that increase one’s mourning is permitted.

  • No Tachanun at Mincha.
        

Seudah mafsekes

  • We eat a final Seudah before the fast. We do not eat two cooked items of food. Raw fruits, cheese etc are fine.

  • Tea and coffee may be drunk (as they are not regarded as cooked items).

  • Cakes and candy should not be eaten, nor pickles, ketchup, beer, etc .  

  • It is best to wash and eat bread for this meal. Some eat a bagel or other round bread as a sign of mourning.

  • Some eat a regular meal before Mincha,  daven Mincha and then eat Seudas Hamfsekes. Still, even during the first meal 2 cooked foods should not be eaten.

  • We sit on the ground with a separation, or on a chair which is lower than 3 Tefochim .

  • We do not yet remove shoes.

  • Three men should not eat together. Even if they did, there is no mezuman.

  • At the end of the meal we eat bread dipped into ashes.

  • We eat a cold hard-boiled egg dipped into ashes. (Some eat the egg after bentching).

  • If one wishes to eat after bentching, one should expressly articulate out loud that they are not beginning the fast with bentching.

  • Even if one remembered to bentch only after the fast already commenced, one does not say Nachem in Birchas Hamazon.

  • Pills to help with fasting are permitted to be taken before the fast. (Regarding taking pills on the fast itself, see below).  

  • Eating is permitted until Shkia 8:11 pm. (8:17pm Upstate)

  • All restrictions of Tisha B’av - eating, washing, wearing leather shoes, putting on lotion etc - begin at Shkia, or from Maariv if one davened earlier.

 

Restrictions of Tisha B’Av

 

  • We remove leather shoes; crocs may be worn, since they are not normal shoes.

  • We do not wash any part of the body, unless specifically necessary to remove dirt.

    • Throughout the day (after using the bathroom and upon awakening), wash hands only until the knuckles.

    • In the morning after washing the hands, one is allowed to place wet hands over one’s eyes and face.

    • One should not rinse one’s mouth.

      • In case of extreme discomfort one may rinse whilst taking care to not swallow even a drop. Using mouthwash or brushing with toothpaste is preferable to plain water as one is less likely to swallow it.    

    • Brushing teeth (even without water) is prohibited except for health reasons or great discomfort  if their teeth are not brushed) .

  • We do not use creams and lotions.

    • If you are in pain from chapped skin or bruises, you may administer cream.

  • One is allowed to apply deodorant on Tisha b’Av to remove foul odor. However, perfume, cologne or makeup, that is specifically meant to enhance appearance or provide good scent is forbidden.

  • Marital relations are forbidden

  • Work requiring focused concentration (e.g., gardening, cooking, etc.) is prohibited until midday 1:02pm (1:04pm upstate), since the main Avelus ends at Chatzos. Some refrain from work the entire day.

  • Stores should not be opened until midday (unless operated by a Non-Jew, or if it will create a great financial loss). However, food stores that sell food for after the fast may be opened before.

  • Sitting on an ordinary seat is also prohibited until midday except when driving a car etc, since there is no specific pleasure involved. Likewise the elderly and weak may sit on regular chairs as there is no “pleasure” for them.

  • We do not offer greetings e.g. Good morning. If somebody greets you, remind them it is Tisha B’Av.

  • Some say that inhaling smoke whilst smoking is a form of eating and prohibited.

 

Tisha B’Av Night

Maariv

 

  • The Paroches is removed, and some remove the Mantel of the Bima as well.

  • We leave minimal lighting needed in Shul.

  • After Shmoneh Esrei the Chazan says Kaddish with Tiskabel, and then we say Eicha. Women too, should read it, even at home alone .

  • By Eicha the Tsibur says the last Hashivenu aloud with the chazan.

  • Then recite Atah Kadosh, Kaddish without Tiskabel and Aleinu.

  • We minimize the comfort of sleeping e.g. by using one less pillow. Those who have the strength to do so even sleep on the floor.

  • An avel in Shiva r”l may go to Shul by night and day.

  • Some Avelim don’t daven for the Amud since Tisha B’av is called a Moed. Others do still daven for the amud.

 

Limud Torah

 

  • The chiyuv of learning Torah every moment applies on Tisha B'Av too. The only difference is what may be learned. The learning must be limited to what is permissible on Tisha B'Av (see above).

 

Shachris

 

  • Wash neggel vasser only until the knuckles (as mentioned above).

  • Some omit the brocho “שעשה לי כל צרכי” as we do not wear regular shoes; others do say it

  • Tallis and Tefilin are not worn until Mincha

  • Do not make the Brocho on Tzitzis nor hold them at any part of davening.

  • The Chazan says Anenu. He omits Birkas Kohanim.

  • Tachanun and Avinu Malkeinu are omitted.

  • After Krias HaTorah recite Kinos, Ashrei, U’va L’tzion (omit “ואני זאת בריתי...”) followed by Kaddish without Tiskabel and Aleinu.

  • Skip Shir shel yom & ein Kelokeinu.

  • Some read Eicha after Shachris individually (not led by a Chazan).

 

The day of Tisha B’av

 

  • If one needs to take pills, (or medication which are bitter) for health purposes, they may do so without water. If one can’t swallow without water, they should put something bitter with the water. Suppositories  may be taken, since it is not regarded as eating.

  • One is allowed to swallow one’s saliva on Tisha B’av.

  • One should not start preparing food for after the fast until after midday (see above).

  • When preparing food it is prohibited to taste anything to see if it needs more salt etc.  

  • Children under nine should fast only the night of Tisha B’av. Older than nine should try fast a few hours of the morning.

  • If one must eat there is debate amongst the Poskim as to whether one says Nachem in Benching. Consult a Rov.

  • One who will be traveling on Tisha B’av (in cases of need) to a location where the fast will start and end before the time of his current location (e.g. going from America to Eretz Yisroel), may end his fast at the time it ends in the new location, even if he didn’t fast an entire day.  

    • If crossing the dateline, ask a shailah.

  • One should not exercise for it distracts one’s focus of the Churbon.

  • One should refrain from traveling before Chatzos if at all possible, so as not to distract from the Churbon.   

 

Mincha

 

  • Tsedoko - give the amount you saved by not eating today.

  • The paroches is put back. Likewise we turn all the lights back on as usual.

  • Put on Tallis and Tefilin (which remain on through Mincha)

  • As every day, recite all three paragraphs of Shema (do not repeat Hashem Elokeichem Emes)

  • Shir shel yom, Ein Keilokeinu

  • Korbanos before Mincha

  • In Shmoneh Esreh, add Nachem & Anenu in Shome'a Tefila.

  • The chazan recites Birkas Kohanim.

  • If you forgot Nachem, say it right after Anenu. If you forgot then too, say it before "Vesechezeno" or before "Ve'al kulam".  If you missed that too, you don't go back.

  • Those who don Rabbenu Tam Tefillin do so after Mincha. Recite Shma and Kadesh Li, making sure to finish before shkia (8:10 pm). (816pm upstate)

  • Fast concludes 842pm, Some extend till 849. (Upstate 848. Some extend till 855 or 904),

 

Motzei Tisha B’Av

 

  • After Maariv

(a) Change to regular shoes before Kiddush Levonah if possible. Otherwise change at home.

(b) Wash neggel vasser in alternating fashion as we do each morning, without a Brocho

(c) Rinse out the mouth

  • We say Kiddush Levonah

  • All the restrictions of the 9 days still apply until tomorrow at Chatzos

 

May we be zoche to celebrate Tisha B'av 5777 in the Beis Hamikdash hashlishi in Yerushalayim!

 



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